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Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP) (Research Report)
Hamutal Bernstein, Carlos Martin, Lauren Eyster, Theresa Anderson, Stephanie Owen, Ananda Martin-Caughey

The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers. The findings inform ANSEP’s programming and provide lessons for other STEM education programs that serve underrepresented minorities nationwide.

Posted to Web: January 26, 2015Publication Date: January 26, 2015

Characteristics of Those Affected by a Supreme Court Finding for the Plaintiff in King v. Burwell (Policy Briefs/Timely Analysis of Health Policy Issues)
Linda J. Blumberg, Matthew Buettgens, John Holahan

Following up on our previous analysis of the implications of a Supreme Court finding for the plaintiff in the King v. Burwell, this brief describes the characteristics of those that would be affected, particularly those who would otherwise have nongroup insurance. Of the 9.3 million people estimated to lose tax credits, two-thirds would become uninsured. Most are adults who are low and middle income but not poor, most are white, non-Hispanic, and most reside in the South. Financial burdens would increase substantially for those wishing to continue buying the same coverage they would have under current implementation of the law.

Posted to Web: January 22, 2015Publication Date: January 22, 2015

Data Use for Continuous Quality Improvement: What the Head Start Field Can Learn from Other Disciplines A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework (Research Report)
Teresa Derrick-Mills, Heather Sandstrom, Sarah L. Pettijohn, Saunji Fyffe, Jeremy Koulish

This report summarizes research on the processes, facilitators, and impediments to data use for continuous quality improvement; develops a conceptual framework representing the elements of data use for continuous quality improvement; provides linkages between the disciplines from which the literature was drawn and the Head Start field; and suggests areas for future research. The review reflects seminal and current works that originate in empirical and professional sources in the fields of educational leadership and management, health care management, nonprofit leadership and management, public management, and organizational learning and development. The resulting conceptual framework describes the elements of leadership, analytic capacity, commitment of resources, professional development, a culture of collaborative inquiry, a continuous cycle, organizational characteristics, and environmental characteristics.

Posted to Web: January 22, 2015Publication Date: January 22, 2015

Does Increasing Reliance on Student Debt Explain Declines in Entrepreneurial Activity? (Research Report)
Sandy Baum

Concerns about declining entrepreneurial activity, rising student debt, and the possible relationship between the two deserve attention. New business enterprises can support innovation and increase employment, so any trend that might be interfering with individuals’ opportunities to take risks, finance start-ups, and build enterprises is worth exploring.

Posted to Web: January 22, 2015Publication Date: January 22, 2015

Transitioning from Medicaid Expansion Programs to Medicare: Making Sure Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries Get Financial Help (Research Brief)
Matthew Buettgens, Lynda Flowers, Jay Dev

The Affordable Care Act allows states to offer Medicaid coverage to low-income adults who would not have qualified under previous law. This population will face higher cost-sharing requirements when they transition to Medicare, although some may be eligible for traditional Medicaid benefits and/or Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs) that will reduce their costs. This report discusses how Medicare beneficiaries can qualify for traditional Medicaid and MSPs, provides new estimates of the number and characteristics of eligible individuals, and outlines policy options that would make it easier for Medicare beneficiaries to qualify for traditional Medicaid benefits and MSPs.

Posted to Web: January 21, 2015Publication Date: January 21, 2015

Lessons the United States Can Learn From Other Countries' Territorial Systems for Taxing Income of Multinational Corporations (Research Report)
Rosanne Altshuler, Stephen Shay, Eric Toder

The United States has a worldwide system that taxes the dividends its resident multinational corporations receive from their foreign affiliates, while most other countries have territorial systems that exempt these dividends. This report examines the experience of four countries – two with long-standing territorial systems and two that have recently eliminated taxation of repatriated dividends. We find that the reasons for maintaining or introducing dividend exemption systems varied greatly among them and do not necessarily apply to the United States. Moreover, classification of tax systems as worldwide or territorial does not adequately capture differences in how countries tax foreign-source income.

Posted to Web: January 21, 2015Publication Date: January 21, 2015

Observations of Leaders Driving Changes in State Government (Research Report)
Heather Hahn, Maeve Gearing, Michael Katz, Ria Amin

Change in state government, as in other large public and private organizations, is an uphill battle. In social and health service agencies, public officials seeking change face myriad challenges, including frequent turnover, limited funding, and lengthy legal and regulatory processes. Despite these obstacles, change is possible and is often driven by strong leaders. In this brief focused on leadership, we examine how state government officials in Colorado and Illinois, two states participating in the Work Support Strategies project, seized opportunities, addressed challenges, and led change.

Posted to Web: January 21, 2015Publication Date: January 21, 2015

Evolving Patterns in Diversity (Research Report)
Steven Martin, Nan Astone, H. Elizabeth Peters, Rolf Pendall, Austin Nichols, Kaitlin Franks, Allison Stolte

From 2010 to 2030 the United States will become more racially and ethnically diverse, but demographic projections suggest the patterns of increasing diversity will vary widely across cities and regions. We project changes in the population shares across geographies for four major groups: Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic others. Though growing diversity across the United States will be welcome in many ways, it will also bring challenges to areas in which different groups increase in population share.

Posted to Web: January 20, 2015Publication Date: January 20, 2015

Children and Youth in an Aging America (Research Report)
Nan Astone, Allison Stolte, Steven Martin, Kaitlin Franks, H. Elizabeth Peters, Rolf Pendall, Austin Nichols

Across the United States, both the elder population-those older than 64-and the younger population-those younger than 20-will grow over the next 15 years. The growth of the elder population is ubiquitous, and the growth of the younger population is more geographically variable. We consider the implications of this growth for generational balance across the United States, using an average scenario of America's future. Areas with growing populations will need to invest resources in a young population growing apace and an elder population growing faster than the overall population.

Posted to Web: January 20, 2015Publication Date: January 20, 2015

The Labor Force in an Aging and Growing America (Research Report)
Austin Nichols, Steven Martin, Nan Astone, H. Elizabeth Peters, Rolf Pendall, Kaitlin Franks, Allison Stolte

From 2010 to 2030, patterns of labor force participation will change across regions of the United States. In some regions, the primary demographic effect will be changes in age structure, which will drive declines in labor force participation rates. In other regions, in-migration and changes in the racial and ethnic composition of the adult population will primarily increase the numbers of the "dependent population"-people not in the labor force. Still other regions will have to accommodate both sharply declining participation rates and sharply increasing nonparticipants. These diverse patterns of changes in labor force participation pose different challenges to regions.

Posted to Web: January 20, 2015Publication Date: January 20, 2015

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